This story of Abram shows the sovereignty of El Elyon. Moses wrote that the four kings of the east went to war against the five kings of Canaan (14:1-2). This was the first physical war in the Bible.
Now these four kings of the east defeated the five kings of Canaan, including the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah (14:10). Many soldiers of Sodom and Gomorrah were killed. So the armies of the four kings plundered the losing cities. They also abducted Abram’s nephew, Lot, and his family, from Sodom. Their abduction of Lot was a terrible mistake. It attracted Abram into the conflict.
Let me say at this point that the land of Canaan, the land of Israel today, has been the scene of wars long before Abram. When Yahweh decided to give the land to Abram, He was actually bringing peace to the land. God shall bring peace to the land through His rule. Where God rules, there is peace.
But so long as people oppose the plan of God in the land of Canaan, there will always be war. That is why you read of on-going wars in the Middle East today.
Now I see three reasons why Abram entered the scene. First is his bad boy nephew, Lot, and second, the booty—all the possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah. When Abram heard about it, he marched his 318 men, all servants who were born in his household. He pursued the abductors as far as Dan. He raided the camp of the four kings, saved his nephew Lot, and pursued the enemy to as far north as Damascus. Then he brought back Lot and his family, all the possessions, and all the people of Sodom (Gen. 14:13-16).
But the third reason why Abram entered the scene is the blessing of the nations for the glory of God. Earlier, God promised Abram that he will bless Abram so that Abram will bless the nations (Gen. 12:1-6). With Abram’s victory and recovery of the people and possessions of Sodom and Gomorrah, he blessed them. In blessing the nations, God is glorified.