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Apostasy Inside. These are the apostle’s inspired reasons for giving the charge to proclaim the Word. Alarmingly, the apostle is predicting it to happen within the Christian church itself.311 Paul is referring, not to unbelievers outside, but to church members inside. Thus, apostasy is imminent in the churches.
But As For You. Yet three times in his last letter, Paul wrote, su de, which is translated, “but you,” or “but as for you” (2 Tim. 3:14, NIV; 4:5, MNT, WNT). In closing the charge, Paul added, “But you [su de], be sober in all things, endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill your ministry” (2 Tim. 4:5, NASB). Every time Paul writes about false teachers and apostasy, he adds, “But as for you.” Stott comments, “Timothy is called to be different. He is not to yield to the pressures of public opinion or conform to the spirit of the age, but rather to stand firm in the truth and righteousness of God.”312
God calls every preacher of the Word to be distinct. The preacher-teacher is to stand firm in biblical truth. Even against opposition from powerful church personalities with itching ears, he is to stay steadfast (1 Kings 22:1-28; Mark 6:17-18; Acts 5:1-11). He serves the church. Yet he serves the Head of the church first. He is not alone. The Spirit of God empowers him “in the grace that is in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 1:1). His duty is to protect the purity of His Gospel vigilantly (2 Tim. 1:14). He is to put forth wholehearted dedication, as he suffers for it unashamedly (2 Tim. 1:8; 2:1-4). He is to persevere in the Word faithfully (2 Tim. 3), and now, to proclaim it uncompromisingly (2 Tim. 4:1-8). He is to endure in ministry and be faithful to the truth.
Audience of One. When the servant of God preaches the Word, he speaks to an audience of One. The Lord Jesus Christ, not his listeners, will be the final Judge. At the end of the day, what matters is not so much about what his listeners think, but what God thinks about him and his ministry. Therefore, he must seek only God’s approval.
High Calling of Preaching. Martin Luther once said, “If I could today become king or emperor, I would not give up my office as preacher.”313 The high calling of God for every Pastor and church is clear—Get the Word Out! Before the presence of God and the Lord Jesus Christ, by His appearing and by His Kingdom, preach the Word! Do it urgently and immediately in these last days. Be ready to proclaim the Word whether there is an opportunity or not. Reprove, rebuke, and exhort “with great patience and instruction” (2 Tim. 4:2, NASB).
311 Wietzke, “2 Timothy 4.” Cited __ Online: http://www.wls.wels.net/library/Essays/authors/w/WietzkeTimothy/WietzkeTimothy.htm.
312 Stott, 2 Timothy, Preface.
313 Piper, “Advise to Pastors.” Cited __ Online: http://www.desiringgod.org/library/topics/leadership/advice_preach.html.
Deflected Towards False Beliefs. Which direction will people of this time turn to? The answer leads us to the seventh characteristic of this season of apostasy. People “will be turned aside to fables” (v. 4, NKJV). The verb, “turned” (Gk. ektrepo), denotes, “to deflect, i.e. avoid, turn (aside, out of the way).”300 It is “a medical term which means to be dislocated.”301 The term “fables” (Gk. muthos), denotes “a tale, i.e. fiction (‘myth’).”302
Five things characterize these fables or myths. First, such tales “threaten the truth of the gospel (2 Tim. 4:4; Tit. 1:14).”303 It is a false rendering of the gospel message.
Second, it leads to ungodliness (1 Tim. 1:4-7; 6:20; 2 Tim. 2:16; Tit. 1:1-2).
Third, those who promote it do so out of their evil desires (2 Tim. 4:3). They are defiled in their minds and consciences (Tit. 1:15). They profess to know God, but by their deeds, actually deny and disobey Him (Tit. 1:16).
Fourth, compared to the Gospel fact of Christ’s earthly appearing and resurrection, myths have no basis in historical reality. The New Testament gives a sharp distinction between myth and truth. Truth is “divine fact with the force of historical reality.”304 For example, Christ, the Logos, is not just “God only begotten” (monogenes theos, John 1:18) in His eternal relationship with the Father. He is the Word who “became flesh, and tabernacled among us” (John 1:14). He revealed God (John 1:18). He is Himself the exact representation of God in space and time (Heb. 1:3; 1 John 1:1-3). In this case, divine truth is historical.
Fifth, myths oppose the truth of the logos of the Gospel. G. Stahlin wrote, “The logos is the incarnate word; if it is replaced by myth, all is lost, and even if it is only linked with myth, it is betrayed.”305
The fables mentioned here therefore are more than just harmless fictions. They refer to all false beliefs that threaten the purity of the Gospel. Fables are false doctrines that oppose God’s truths in Scripture (2 Cor. 10:3-5; 1 Tim. 1:4; 4:7; Titus 1:14; 2 Pet. 1:16).306 They are false concepts that twist the faith. Examples of fables are the Gnostic gospels. They also include anti-biblical, syncretist beliefs in Filipino folk religion, blending idolatrous beliefs with the biblical Gospel.
Thus, people in these last days shall turn their ears away from the direction of biblical truth. Meanwhile, they are being turned towards the way of fables, fictions, and false faith. Scholars note as a moral law, “that those who will not seek truth will receive untruth.”307
Interestingly, the verb form, “turn away the ear,” is future active indicative.308 The active voice refers to the subject doing the action. This means that apostate people shall turn away their ear from listening to sound biblical truth. On the other hand, the verb form of the phrase, “will turn aside to myths” (NASB), is future middle voice.309 This means that they shall be turned aside themselves towards false doctrines. Thus, the more they shall turn their ears away from the truth, the more they shall be turned aside to believe in untruths. When people reject God’s truth, they do not necessarily believe in nothing. Worse, they will believe in anything!310
301 Isidro, Annotated, 389.
302 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
303 TDNT, s. v. “mythos” by G. Stahlin.
305 TDNT, s. v. “mythos” by G. Stahlin.
306 MacArthur, MacArthur, 1880.
307 PNTC in Power Bible CD.
308 Friberg and Friberg, Analytical in Bible Windows CD.
309 Zodhiates, The Complete, 706.
310 Guzik, “2 Timothy 4,” Commentaries. Cited __ Online: http://www.studylight.org/com/guz/view.cgi?book=2ti&chapter=004.
Deviating from the Truth. Sixth, in this season of falling away from the faith, false preachers “will turn away the ear from the truth” (v. 4). The word for “turn away” (Gk. apostrepho) is a strong verb. Apo denotes “off, i.e. away (from something near)” and “usually denotes separation, departure, cessation, reversal.”298 Strepho means, “to twist, i.e. turn quite around or reverse.”299 Thus, it means to turn around or twist the ear away from listening to the truth.
Paul is therefore telling Timothy, “In these last days, false teachers will turn people’s ears from listening and obeying biblical truth. They will cause people to make a detour from apostolic faith. They will make people turn from the direction of what is true, towards the way of what is false.”
298 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
Delighting Their Ears. Fifth, the apostle describes these false Christians as “having itching ears” (v. 3, ESV, KJV, ASV, RSV). The term, “itching” (Gk. knetho), literally means, “to scratch.”296 Here, the present passive/middle participle paints a vivid picture. The present middle/passive pertains to the subject as performing a repeated action on itself. Thus, these apostates are being tickled themselves—by things that they want to hear. They have their ears scratched not just once, but several times, regularly and repeatedly. Having itching ears and then being tickled by false teachers, they shall listen to more and more false teachers.
People will itch only for preachers who tickle their own selfish desires. These speakers will tell them what they want to hear; but not what God wants them to heed. God’s Word is no longer their criterion for judging a preacher or teacher. Instead, their standard is now their own subjective desires. Stott adds, “Worse . . . they first decide what they want to hear and then select teachers who will oblige by toeing their line.”297 In other words, when they hear a message, they will not judge whether it is true or not according to Scripture. Rather, they will see if they like it or not. Thus, people will leave the old lighthouse of biblical faith to ride the latest spiritual wave. The consequence, however, is to hit the rocks of spiritual destruction (1 Tim. 6:9-10).
In these days of apostasy, people choose what they want to believe. They follow preachers who tell them what they like to hear. Like the old beer commercial however, false teachings tickle the throat, but are less filling. In their desire to eat the sweet dessert of positive blessings, people skip the real meat of God’s Word. The result is a shallow faith. To fill this shallow kind of faith, people will continually seek high voltage experiences. It is a vicious cycle.
296 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
297 Stott, 2 Timothy, 111.
Desiring Tickling Teachers. Fourth, “they will heap to themselves teachers” (v. 3). The NIV translates it, “they will gather around them a great number of teachers.” Yet it misses the Greek. The verb, “heap” (Gk. episoreuo), literally means, “to accumulate further, i.e., (figuratively) to seek additionally.”293 Thus, the ESV renders it more accurately, “they will accumulate for themselves teachers.” The verb form here is future indicative active. This means that these false Christians shall seek one false teacher after another.
There is a contrast here. In this due season of departure, people will not put up with sound doctrine. Yet they will put up with false teachers. They will follow not just one but many false teachers.
People in apostasy will prefer preachers who satisfy their self-centered desires, instead of the desires of God. These false teachers will not stress repentance and thus interrupt their sinful longings. They will not call attention to their sinful desires. The LORD said, “But if they had stood in My counsel, And had caused My people to hear My words, Then they would have turned them from their evil way And from the evil of their doings” (Jer. 23:22, NKJV). However, these false pastors will not bother to call people out of their sin. They will emphasize only the positive blessings of God, but not His negative demands against sin. They will teach half-truths, but not the whole counsel of God (Acts 20:27).
Warren W. Wiersbe wrote, “A large congregation is not always a sign that he [the pastor] is preaching the truth. In fact, it may be evidence that he is tickling people’s ‘itching ears’ and giving them what they want to hear instead of what they need to hear.”294 These are strong, but truthful words indeed. If Wiersbe is correct, then the top ten largest churches in the world today are not always an indication that their pastors are preaching the truth.
Many today look with awe at pastors of large churches, but lose that awe with pastors of small churches. The unwritten notion is that the larger the church, the more anointed is the pastor. But we infer from Paul that in the last days, numbers do not determine the anointing of a pastor. If many shall follow pastors that tickle people, then there will be more of the larger churches than there will be the smaller ones.
Guzik writes, “The most popular preachers are not necessarily the most faithful preachers.”295 Conversely, being a popular preacher does not necessarily mean unfaithfulness to the Word. Nevertheless, being a faithful, biblical preacher in these times of apostasy will certainly not make one very popular. Yet the pastoral job is not a popularity contest, but a faithfulness challenge. God has called the biblical speaker to be faithful, not popular.
293 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
294 Warren W. Wiersbe, “2 Timothy,” The Bible Exposition Commentary/New Testament (vol. 2; Quezon: Christian Growth Ministries, 2001), 254.
295 Guzik, “2 Timothy 4,” Commentaries. Cited __ Online: http://www.studylight.org/com/guz/view.cgi?book=2ti&chapter=004.
Driven By Selfish Desires. Third, people will behave “after their own lusts” (v. 3); “according to their own desires” (NKJV, YLT); or “to suit their own desires” (NIV). The word, “lusts” (Gk. epithumia), denotes, “a longing (especially for what is forbidden), desire, lust (after).”290 Buchsel notes that in New Testament usage, epithumia “usually denotes evil desire as indicated by the object (a woman in Mt. 5:28, other things in Mk. 4:19).”291 In our text, the object of people’s lusts appears to be “what their itching ears want to hear” (2 Tim. 4:3, NIV). Thus, their desires are evil, in that they prefer messages that tickle their ears (James 1:14-15; 1 John 2:15-17). They lust no longer after the truths of God, but after things that please them.
Like people in Jesus’ time, people today seek the signs, not the Son (Luke 11:29; 1 Cor. 1:22). They want the gifts more than the Giver. They want it now.
The gospel of health, which promises complete, instantaneous healing, naturally feeds such craving. God does heal in answer to the prayer of faith, according to His perfect will (Luke 18:1-8; James 5:13-16; 1 John 5:14-15). God is a healing God. Yet He is also a sovereign God. God can even allow sickness for a higher and greater purpose (Job 1:8-12; 2:1-6; 2 Cor. 1:3-7; 12:1-10; 1 Tim. 5:23; Heb. 12:6; James 5:10-11). After Job lost all his children and properties, he contracted terrible boils (Job 2:7-8). As if that was not enough, his wife told him, “Curse God and die” (Job 2:9, NIV)! Nevertheless, Job said, “Shall we indeed accept good from God, and shall we not accept adversity” (Job 2:10, NKJV)? Unlike Job, people in apostasy want only pleasures from God, but not pain.
Troubles and trials are not necessarily evil (Eccl. 7:1-15), just as prosperity and pleasures are not necessarily good (Eccl. 6:1-12).292 Nonetheless, they are all part of God’s perfect plan (Phil. 1:29; 1 Pet. 1:6-7; James 1:2-3). We may never fathom God’s purposes behind every painful event in our lives, just as Job never did even though he tried to find it. Yet the Bible stresses rejoicing in hope, patience in affliction, and perseverance in prayer (Rom. 12:12). It tells us to wait on God’s perfectly timed help (Ps. 27:14; 123:2; Isa. 40:31; Heb. 4:16). It never teaches us to presume on God’s will. Yet the gospel of health and wealth feeds on the natural craving of the sinful nature for the favor of God now, without regard for pain as the God-glorifying purpose of God for a believer.
People in apostasy also love money more than they love God. “For the love of money is the root of all evil” (1 Tim. 6:10). The gospel of prosperity caters to this materialistic mind-set. It makes people believe in God for what they can get from Him. It fails to stress contentment in godly living (Phil. 4:11-12; 1 Tim. 6:6-10, 17-19; Heb. 13:5). It breeds covetousness (Luke 12:15). It projects material blessings as an end in themselves. It contradicts the biblical teaching on giving up all things for Christ (Matt. 6:20, 24; Phil. 3:8).
Jesus’ prosperity theology is to have fewer things on earth, and to gain more in heaven. He said, “Sell what you have and give it to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven” (Matt. 19:21, NKJV; Luke 12:33). “One’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions” (Luke 12:15, ESV). Many Christians are so caught up with worldly materialism, that they already disobey the teaching of Christ.
Similarly, Paul’s doctrine of prosperity is “to be rich in good deeds, and to be generous and willing to share. In this way they will lay up treasure for themselves . . . for the coming age” (1 Tim. 6:18-19, NIV). He teaches us to prosper, not in material goods, but in godliness with contentment, in whatever circumstances (1 Tim. 6:6-8). Yet people today, driven by consumer culture, want only material blessings. Paul clearly warns against such a carnal attitude. He predicts destruction for those who fall into its trap (1 Tim. 6:9-10).
290 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
291 TDNT, s. v. “epithymia” by F. Buchsel.
292 Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Toward An Old Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978), 179. God never promises a life free of pain, but a life full of His faithfulness, comfort, compassion, mercy, grace, and yes, even joy, in good times and bad (Lam. 3:22-23; 2 Cor. 1:3-7; 12:9-10; 1 Pet. 5:10; James 5:11; Phil. 3:1;
Gal. 5:22). Our part is to trust in a sovereign God, who acts according to His perfect wisdom.
Disregard of Sound Doctrine. Second, people at this time “will not endure sound doctrine” (v. 3). The word, “endure” (Gk. anechomai), means, “put up with, bear with.” “Sound doctrine” is from the Greek, hugiaino didaskalia.281 Hugiaino denotes “to have sound health, i.e., be well (in body); figuratively, to be uncorrupt (true in doctrine).”282 It is where we get our word “hygiene.”283 Didaskalia is “doctrine, learning, teaching”284
Matthew and Mark used a similar word, hugies,285 of people whom Jesus healed. Matthew wrote, “And he stretched it out; and it was restored whole [hugies] as the other” (Matt. 12:13; cf. Mark 3:5). Previously, disease disfigured the people. Now Jesus made them “whole” or sound.286 Soundness then, means wholeness.
Applied to doctrine, soundness means the state of being pure and true. There is no mixture of impurity and untruth. It is pure metal, not an alloy. Thus, sound doctrine is true teaching (1 Tim. 1:10; 5:3; Tit. 2:8). It is healthy, hygienic, wholesome, true, biblical teaching—uncorrupted by false teaching. It is “doctrine contributing to the health of the soul, or to salvation”287 “such as is revealed in the word of God.”288
According to D. Edmond Hiebert, sound doctrine does not just build up people in the faith. It also “protects against the corrupting influence of false teachers.”289 However, people in these last days will not put up with sound doctrine. Again, the verb form is middle voice. The middle voice refers to the subject as doing something to itself. Thus, they shall not bear with true teaching themselves. They shall not patiently endure it themselves.
281 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
282 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
283 Merritt, “Pastoral Leadership in a Postmodern World.” Cited __ Online: http://www.uu.edu/centers/rglee/fall03/merritt.htm.
284 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
285 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
286 Stott, 2 Timothy, 43.
287 Barnes, Barnes’ Commentary in Power Bible CD.
288 Family Bible Notes in Power Bible CD.
289 D. Edmond Hiebert, “Titus,” The NIV Study Bible (ed. Kenneth L. Barker; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985), 1851.
The Season of the Charge
3 For there will come a time when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts they will heap to themselves teachers, who tickle the ear;
4 And who will turn away the ear from the truth, and will be turned into fables.
Paul gives the reason for the urgency to preach the Word now. “There will come a time” (Gk. kairos) of apostasy (2 Tim. 3:1-9; 4:1-4). This time is “one of the akairos (out of season) times” of resistance to God’s Word.269 It is not a question of when it shall come. It shall come imminently in these last days (2 Tim. 3:1). Nor is it a question of how it shall come. It shall come through perverse people and pious phonies (2 Tim. 3:1-9). Rather, it is a question of what shall come. The apostle gives us seven characteristics of the coming apostasy.
Departure from the Faith. First, people shall depart from biblical truths. “Now the Spirit clearly speaks, that in the latter times some will depart from the faith” (1 Tim. 4:1). The Greek word for “depart” (Gk. apostesontai), is where we get our English word “apostasy,” or “apostate.” It is the future middle voice of aphistemi.270 Aphistemi is a compound of, apo, which means, “off,” or “away from something near,” or to separate; and, histemi, which means, “to stand.”271 The “faith” refers to the body of Christian truth and doctrine as revealed in the Bible (Jude 3).272 Thus, to depart from the faith is to stand off, separate, or fall away from the faith. In the last days, some so-called Christians shall stand away themselves from the truths of God’s Word. They shall fall away themselves from the faith. They shall forsake biblical doctrine.
Paul tells Timothy about the period of this departure from the faith. It will happen “in the last days” (2 Tim. 3:1). The “last days” refer to the “Messianic era, the time beginning with Christ’s first coming (Acts 2:17; 1 Ti 4:1; Heb 1:1; 1 Pe 1:20; 1 Jn 2:18),”273 specifically, “the period from the incarnation of Christ up to the end of the tribulation period.”274 This means that we are now living in the last days.
In these last days, there will be “perilous times” (2 Tim. 3:1). The adjective, “perilous” (Gk. chalepos), means, “difficult, i.e., dangerous,”275 Thus, “perilous times” (2 Tim. 3:1) literally means, “difficult times, in which it is difficult to know what is to be done.”276
Matthew used the same word to describe the two demon-possessed men who met Jesus in the country of the Gergesenes. They were “so exceedingly violent [chalepos] that no one could pass by that road” (Matt. 8:28, NASB). Hence, there will be perilous, difficult, dangerous, and very violent times in the last days. Such difficult times will “increase in frequency and severity as the return of Christ approaches (v. 13) [2 Tim. 3:13].”277
Furthermore, it “will come” (2 Tim. 3:1). The verb, “will come” (Gk. enistemi), means, “to place on hand, i.e. be at hand, present.”278 The verb form is future middle indicative.279 These difficult times shall come themselves. It carries the idea of imminent coming, at any time, and unexpectedly.280 In these last days, therefore, difficult times shall come themselves—at any moment, without warning, and suddenly.
Lastly, in such difficult times, people will be: lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of good, treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; holding to a form of godliness; although they have denied its power (2 Tim. 3:2-5, NASB).
They will give in to their sinful nature, exploit the weak, and oppose the truth (2 Tim. 3:6-8). False teachers will also proliferate and deceive many (1 Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Tim. 3:7-9, 13; 4:3-4).
269 Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures in Power Bible CD.
270 Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures in Power Bible CD.
271 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
272 Donald W. Burdick and John H. Skilton, “Jude,” The NIV Study Bible (ed. Kenneth L. Barker; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985), 1920.
273 Walter W. Wessel and George W. Knight, III, “2 Timothy,” The NIV Study Bible (ed. Kenneth L. Barker; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985), 1846.
274 Isidro, Annotated, 386.
275 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
276 Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, JFBC in Power Bible CD.
277 MacArthur, MacArthur, 1878.
278 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
279 Friberg and Friberg, Analytical in Bible Windows CD.
280 Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, JFBC in Power Bible CD.
Religiously. Finally, he is to proclaim the Word religiously. “Preach the Word . . . with all longsuffering and doctrine” (v. 2, KJV, RKJV). [Emphasis added] The word, “doctrine” (Gk. didache), means “instruction (the act or the matter)” or what is taught.263 It is elsewhere translated “instruction” (NIV, NASB) or “teaching” (ESV, NKJV, RSV, YLT). It means “‘teaching,’ ‘instruction’ as a fact.” The stress of the New Testament is “on God’s teaching through Jesus and the apostles.”264
The Greek for “‘doctrine’ here is didache, but in 2 Tim. 3:16, didascalia. ‘Didascalia’ is what one receives; ‘didache’ is what is communicated.”265 It carries the idea of thorough, systematic teaching of the Word.266 Thus, young Timothy must reprove, rebuke, and exhort with all patience and with all doctrine. This doctrine refers to all that his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice had taught him (2 Tim. 1:5). It is “the standard of sound words” which Paul had taught Timothy (2 Tim. 1:13-14, NASB). It is found in the “the sacred writings,” which he had known since childhood (2 Tim. 3:15, RSV). It refers to the whole counsel of God in the whole Bible (Acts 20:27).
Like Timothy, today’s young leaders tend to become impatient with people. They skip diligent instruction. Some try out the latest marketing methods in order to get more results. This is how the world works, but not the Spirit of God. God’s method is the diligent preaching of the Word in all patience and systematic instruction. It must be a doctrinal, instructional ministry. This is why the apostle Paul required candidates for pastoral leadership to be both standing firm in “sound doctrine” (Titus 1:9) and “skillful in teaching” (1 Tim. 3:2).267
I know of a megachurch pastor who lacks in expository preaching. Yet what he lacks, he compensates by inviting biblical teachers to do the job through year round seminars in his church network. Another pastor preaches only once a month, allowing other more expositional speakers to speak on other Sundays. At least, such measures ensure a Bible teaching ministry in their churches.
The only biblical ministry is ministry by the Book. The results are God’s results. Timothy, Guzik well notes, “was to hold up the word of God against the lives of his people and let God do the work.”268
Every Pastor should plan a schedule of teaching the whole Bible. Every church should ask him to do it. We have not yet tackled the whole breath of God’s completed revelation in Scripture. Let us teach the Bible.
263 Strong, Strong’s Greek Dictionary in Power Bible CD.
264 TDNT, s. v. “didache” by K. H. Rengstorf.
265 Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, JFBC in Power Bible CD.
266 Stott, 2 Timothy, 108.
267 Stott, 2 Timothy, 108.
268 Guzik, “2 Timothy 4,” Commentaries. Cited __ Online: http://www.studylight.org/ com/guz/view.cgi?book=2ti&chapter=004.